Brain

 

brain

An adult human brain weighs about one and a half kilograms and is known as the center of command and control of the body. This complex system consists of different parts, each of which controls a specific part of the body and performs a specific action. In this article, we will examine the structure of the brain and describe the functions of each of these parts. What you will read:

 

The structure of the human brain

Brain diseases 

The structure of the human brain:

Brain structure can be divided into three sections:

  1. Brain (cerebrum)
  2. Cortex (brain membrane)
  3. Brainstem

braine

1- Brain (cerebrum):

It is the largest part of the human brain, which is divided into right and left hemispheres. This part has many folds that increase the area of the brain and nerve cells, allowing the brain to fit in the skull. About two-thirds of the brain's volume is made up of deep folds.

The cerebellum is a very important part of the brain and plays a vital role in controlling and coordinating body movements and balance while dividing the brain into left and right parts.

The two hemispheres of our brain are very similar but not perfectly symmetrical. In fact, there are major differences between the functions of these two parts. 

 

Left brain functions:

Some of the functionalities of the left brain are:

  • It controls all the muscles of the right half of our body.
  • Parts of the brain that play a role in speech and language abilities are in this hemisphere.
  • The ability of mathematical calculations is in this section.
  • The ability to retrieve facts belongs to this half.
  • It gives the power to analysis.                                                                                                          

Right brain functions:

The main functionalities of the right half of our brains are:

  • creativity
  • Insights and Imaginations
  • Visualization
  • Rhythmology
  • Art
  • Non-verbal abilities and skills

 

Sometimes one of the two halves is slightly dominant over the other half, causing us to be right-handed or left-handed.

There are a number of beliefs about the superiority of one of the two hemispheres over the other one, which are not correct in general. In fact, it can be said that everyone is using both halves of their brains at all times.

The human brain is known as the most complex brain structure among animals and has many folds that justify the complexity of human behavior compared to other living things. The frontal lobe in humans is a major difference between the human and other mammals. The lobe is much wider in humans than other mammals and is responsible for high-level functions such as self-control, logic, abstraction, planning, and behavioral processing. 

 

2- cortex (brain membrane):

It is the outside layer of the brain, which unlike other mammals, is very large and wrinkled in humans and is known as the center of complex human functions. The cerebral cortex is functionally divided into the following four parts (lobes):

 

Frontal lobe (front of the forehead):

This lobe is responsible for controlling a person's behavior and cognitive actions.

 

Temporal lobe (temporal):

The function of this lobe is to process sound, language and speech.

 

Peritoneal lobe (parietal):

This lobe processes input information from different senses and plays an important role in spatial navigation and routing.

 

Occipital lobe (occipital):

Visual information processing is the responsibility of this part of the brain.

 

3- brainstem:

This part of the brain is located under the brain and is made up of the following vital components:

  • Medulla oblongata
  • Brain Bridge (Pons)
  • Middle brain

 

Brain stem functions:

The brainstem is an important part of the ethan brain that performs the following functions:

  • Exchange of information between the brain, body and the spinal cord
  • Connects to nerves in the face and head
  • Control vital functions such as heart function, respiration and alertness

 

Brain diseases 

The following is a categorized and titrated list of brain diseases:

Strokes:

Types of brain strokes can be divided into the following:

  • Ischemic strokes of the brain
  • Hemorrhagic strokes of the brain
  • Transient attack of stroke (TIA) or mini-stroke

Cerebral hemorrhage:

The main types are:

  • Bleeding inside the brain parenchyma
  • Bleeding subarachnoid
  • Epidural bleeding
  • Subdural hemorrhage
  • Cerebrovascular aneurysm

Cortical (related to disorders of the cortex or cerebral cortex):

The main types of these diseases and disorders are:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Niemann–Pick disease
  • dementia lewy body

Subcortical (related to disorders below the cerebral cortex):

That includes:

  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease

Cerebral dementias

Some of these diseases are:

  • Vascular dementia (vascular dementia)
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Frontotemporal dementia
  • Unallocated dementia
  • Mixed dementia

Cerebral basal cell disorders:

This includes the following two categories:

  • Movement disorders:
    • Trembling or shaking of hands
      • Head Nodding
      • Weiss tremor (sound vibration)
  • chorea:
    • Sydenham chorea
    • Autoimmune Chorea 

Dystonia:

Which can be any of the followings:

  • Focal
  • Belfarospasm
  • Segmental
  • Torticollis
  • Generalized (covering limbs, head and neck)
  • Torticollis
  • Hand dystonia
  • Foot dystonia
  • Wilson's disease
  • Huntington's disease
  • Ataxia
  • Balismus and HemiBalismus
  • Spasms
  • Hemi-facial spasm
  • Mig syndrome
  • Dyskinesia

Cramps:

  • Job cramps
  • Cramps Writers
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Echolalia
  • Palilalia

Parkinson:

Which are divided into two types:

  • Idiopathic
  • Family

Encephalitis:

Which can be any of the following:

  • Infectious encephalitis
  • Viral encephalitis
  • Bacterial encephalitis
  • Immunogenic non-infectious encephalitis

Meningitis:

Meningitis have different varieties like:

  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Viral meningitis
  • Fungal meningitis
  • Chronic meningitis
  • Non-infectious meningitis (due to allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases)
  • Cancer meningitis
  • Brain abscesses
  • Hydrocephalus

Epilepsy:

Its different types can be divided into the following:

  • Tonic-clonic seizures
  • Myoclonic seizures
  • Tonic seizures
  • Atonic seizures
  • Hidden seizures (absence)
  • Focal epilepsy:
    • Simple focal seizures
    • Complex focal seizures

Brain tumors:

Which include two types, primary and secondary.

  • Primary brain tumor:
    • Astrocytoma
    • Ependymoma
    • Glioblastoma
    • Oligoastrocytoma
    • Oligodendroglioma
    • Benign meningioma
    • Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) Benign
    • Benign pituitary adenoma
    • Meduloblastoma
    • Craniopharyngioma
    • Germ cell tumors
    • Primary neuroectodermal tumors
    • Lymphoma
  • Secondary brain tumors:
    • Metastases

Headaches:

you can read more about headache hereHeadaches include two types, primary and secondary.

  • primitive:
    • Migraine
    • Tension
    • Cluster
    • trigeminal cephalalgi
  • Secondary:
    • CNS infections
    • Post traumatic
    • Vascular diseases
    • Consumption of materials

 

 

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