Bone and Joint

A set of bones (skeletons) along with joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc. forming the musculoskeletal system, which makes up our motor system. In the following, we will examine the tasks of each of the components of this system and their associated diseases.


bone and joint


Bone skeleton:

The skeleton provides a solid framework for our vital organs so that the brain within the skull and the heart and lungs behind the chest bones are protected.


Joints and tendons:

Bones are connected by joints. Our joints and muscles connected to joints and bones allow the bones to move wth respect to each other. Each muscle attaches to the bone in at least two places (except some facial muscles).

Tendons attach to the bone at one end and to the muscle at the other end. When the muscle contracts, it transmits the force of contraction to the bone.



Ligaments connect and stabilize the bones around a joint. Both ends of the ligaments are therefore attached to the bones.



Cartilage is located at both ends of the bones attached together at the joint, making the contact surface between the bones smooth and slippery. 



The bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that surround some joints (mostly between the tendons  and muscles) and facilitate movement of the joint and joint components. 


Bone and joint diseases:

Each of the components of our locomotor system can be disrupted and diseased. In the following, we will introduce the diseases of the skeletal system, bones and joints in a categorized and titrated way:

bone and joint

1- Fractures:

Fractures, which are the most common types of skeletal injuries, include the following:

  • Open Fractures
  • Closed Fractures
  • Stress fractures
  • Pathologic fractures
  • Fractures in children


2- Dislocations

Dislocation is another type of skeletal injury that is different from a fracture and requires separate therapeutic interventions. The diagnosis of dislocation is made by an orthopedic and spine specialist.


3- infections:

  • Osteomyelitis
  • Superficial

4- shoulders disorders

Problems associated with shoulder are various and can have different causes. In general, shoulder diseases include the following:

  • Shoulder pain and contusion
  • Shoulder Osteoarthritis
  • Adhesive Capsule (frozen shoulder)
  • Impingement syndrome
  • Shoulder tendonitis (divided into two types):
    • Biceps tendonitis tear
    • Calcific tendonitis
  • Shoulder labral tear
  • Malunion malignant shoulder fractures
  • Rheumatologic diseases of a shoulder
  • Shoulder Tumors
  • Ruptures of the shoulder tendons (divided into three categories):
    • Biceps tendonitis tear
    • pectoralis tendon tear
    • rotator cuff tear
  • Recurrent shoulder pain (three types):
    • Recurrent pain from lung problems
    • Recurrent pain from heart problems
    • Recurrent pain from neck problems
  • Infections in the shoulder
  • Fractures of the shoulder (including the following two types):
    • with movement
    • without movement
  • Other shoulder-related fractures include:
    • Clavicle fractures in the shoulder area
    • Scapula fractures in the shoulder area
    • Fracture of the head of the humerus
    • Shoulder detachment (acromioclavicular joint detachment)
  • Dislocation of on the shoulder (with the following types):
    • Dislocation of the main shoulder joint (glenohumeral dislocation):
    • Anterior shoulder dislocation
    • Posterior shoulder dislocation
    • Recurrent dislocation of shoulder
    • Acromioclavicular joint dislocation 
  • And other diseases related to shoulder:
    • Bankart lesion
    • Unstable shoulders
    • Springer disease 

5- Arm diseases:

The most common disease is the fractures of the arm which can be very painful.

6- Elbow diseases:

  • Elbow fractures: Fractures are one of the most common bone diseases in the most parts of the body. Types of elbow fractures include the following:
    • Fractures of suprachoroidal
    • Fractures of suprachoroidal in children
    • Fractures of suprachoroidal in adults
    • Fractures of lateral condyle
    • Fractures of capitulum
    • Fractures of medial condyle
    • Fractures of olecranon
    • Fractures of head of radius in elbow
  • Elbow dislocations: Which include the following types:
    • Dislocation of the head of radius
    • Congenital dislocation of the head of radius
    • Half dislocation of radius bone head 
  • Elbow pain: Elbow pain comes in many forms and causes, including:
    • Tennis S Elbow
    • Golf elbow
    • Olecranon bursitis
    • Cubital tunnel syndrome
    • Radial tunnel syndrome
    • Radicular pain from cervical vertebrae
  • Elbow infections
  • Eheumatologic diseases in elbow
  • Biceps muscle tear
  • Elbow arthritis
  • Changes in form of elbows: Types of deformities in the elbow area include the following:
    • Cubitus valgus
    • Cubitus varus
    • Gun Stock deformity 
  • Tumors


7- forearm diseases:

  • Forearm fractures 
  • Fracture - dislocation of the forearm (divided into two categories):
    • Monteggia dislocation fracture
    • Gauls dislocation fracture 
  • Congenital forearm diseases including:
    • Congenital adhesions of the forearm bones
    • Congenital absence of forearm bones


8- wrist diseases

  • Fractures include the following types:
    • Calis Fractures 
    • Smith Fractures
    • Styloid fracture
    • Growth plate fractures in the wrist
    • Barton Fractures - dislocation
    • Scaphoid fracture
    • Fractures of - dislocation of on the wrist
  • Damage to the wrist ligaments 
  • Osteoarthritis of wrist
  • Avascular bone necrosis (Keenbach disease)
  • Medalung Deformity
  • Decron disease
  • Intersection syndrome
  • Wrist ganglion


9- hand diseases (palm)

  • Hand fractures, which includes the following types:
    • Fractures of all the fingers of the hand
    • Fractures of metacarpal in the palm of the hand
    • Fractures of the neck of metacarpal
  • Arthiritis:
    • Wrist arthritis
    • Fingers arthritis
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis 
  • Dislocation of the:
    • Dislocation of all the joints of the fingers
    • Damage to the ligaments of the fingers
    • Twisting of fingers 
  • Other paw diseases
    • Tear of the tendons of the fingers
    • Rupture of the tendons of the fingers
    • Skin diseases of hands, fingers and nails
    • Amputation of fingers
    • Dupuytren's contracture
    • Sudeck's atrophy (the sympathizers of dystrophies)
    • Glomus tumor
    • Mucosal cysts of fingers
    • Xanthoma of the hand
  • Deformities. There are several types of this complication, including:
    • Triger finger
    • Malta Finger
    • Deformity Swan Neck
    • Syndactyly
    • Poly Ductile
    • Paronychia
    • Felon infection
    • Cellulite
    • Purulent tenosynovitis
    • Tenar (Infection of the palm space) 


10- Spine diseases:

Spinal diseases can cause serious and important problems to the person.  These includes:

  • Spinal fractures
  • Spondylolisthesis
  • Spine pain:
    • Neck pain
    • Back pain
    • Disk herniation
    • Narrowing of the spinal canal
    • Spondylolysthesis
    • Facet Arthritis
    • Sciatica pain
    • Piriformis syndrome
  • Intervertebral disc herniation, include the following:
    • Cervical disc
    • Lumbar disk
    • Spina bifida
    • Kyphosis
    • Scoliosis
    • Coccydynia


11- Pelvic diseases:

  • Pelvic fractures, including the following types:
    • Acetabulum fractures
    • Pelvic ring fractures
    • Stable fractures
    • Unstable fractures
    • Stress pelvic fractures
  • Pelvic painPelvic pain causes and takes many forms, including the following:
    • Piriformis syndrome
    • Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint
    • Ischiogluteal bursitis (pain in the lower back)
    • Inflammation of the iliopsoas tendon
    • Iliopsoas bursitis
    • Osteitis Pubis
  • Tumors
  • Infections


12- Diseases of the hip joint

  • Hip fractures, which include the following types:
    • Fractures around the hip joint
    • Fracture of the femoral neck
    • Intertrochanteric fracture
    • Sub trochanteric fracture
    • Fracture of the femoral head (which itself is divided into several categories):
      • Type I femoral head fracture
      • Type II femoral head fracture
      • Type III femoral head fracture
      • Type IV femoral head fracture
      • Stress fractures of the hip joint
  • Hip dislocations. Hip dislocations are divided into congenital and acquired types. The acquired type is divided into the following types:
    • Posterior
    • Anterior
  • Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (blackening of the femoral head) perthes disease
  • Osteoporosis of the hip
  • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
  • Coxa vara
  • Hip impingement syndrome
  • Muscle strain and spasm
  • Labrum rupture of the hip joint
  • Synovitis of the hip joint


13- Diseases of the thigh:

In this section, we will examine the types of thigh diseases:

  • Fracture
    • Thigh fractures in adults
    • Thigh fractures in children
    • Distal femoral fracture
  • Quadriceps stretching
  • Hamstring stretches
  • Rupture of the quadriceps tendon
  • Ante version of femur


14- Diseases of the knee:

Knee problems and injuries are also very diverse. Some of these injuries are:

  • Fracture of the knee dislocation, which has its own types:
    • Knee fractures
    • Fracture of the patella
  • Dislocations. Which include the following:
    • Knee dislocation
    • Patellar dislocation
    • Congenital patella dislocation
  • ligament and soft tissue injuries of the knee, which include the following:
    • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries
    • Posterior cruciate ligament injury
    • Injury of collateral ligaments
    • Knee tendon injury
    • Patellar tendon rupture
    • Injury and rupture of the meniscus of the knee
  • Cartilage injuries of the knee, which are divided into four types:
    • Grade one
    • Grade two
    • Grade three
    • Grade four
  • Osteoarthritis (knee osteoarthritis)
  • Patellar chondromalacia
  • Osteochondritis Dissent
  • pieces of patella (bipartite patella)
  • Patella accessories
  • Blunt diseases
  • Geneva
  • Genu valgum
  • Knees of jumpers 
  • Diseases of Osgood-Schlatter
  • Quadratic tendonitis then
  • Ileotibial band syndrome
  • Polyca syndrome
  • Cysts of the meniscus of the knee
  • Meniscus discoid
  • Baker cysts (popliteal cysts)
    • Pes anserine bursitis
    • Patellar bursitis


15- Leg diseases:

  • Fractures Types of leg fractures include the following:
    • Tibial fracture
    • Fibula fracture
    • Fracture of each leg and bone
    • Proximal tibial fracture
    • Fracture of the proximal tibial growth plate
  • Other leg diseases
    • Compartment syndrome
    • Strain, spasm and rupture of muscles in the back of the leg
    • Restless leg syndrome
    • Pain in the front of the leg (shin splint)
    • Blood clotting
    • Neuropathies Skin diseases
    • Infections


16- Ankle injuries:

The ankle is one of the most vulnerable areas of the body that has a variety of diseases. In the following, we will examine different types of these diseases:

  • Fracture or ankle dislocations
  • Pylon fractures (crushing the end of the leg)
  • Fractures of the talus
  • Ankle sprains
  • Achilles tendon rupture
  • Ankle arthritis
  • Ankle osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Post-traumatic arthritis of the ankle
  • Changes in the shape of the ankle
  • Achilles tendon bursitis
  • Achilles Tendinitis
  • Tendon dislocations
  • Ankle Impingement Syndromes


17- Foot diseases:

Foot diseases, like other areas, are very diverse. Here we summarize some of these diseases:

  • Foot fractures
  • Toes fractures
  • Fractures of the plantar bones (metatarsals)
  • Lisfranc fracture
  • Stress of fractions
  • Heel fracture
  • Hallux Valgus
  • Hallux Regidus
  • Osteoarthritis of the toes
  • Heel spur (plantar fasciitis)
  • Sever's disease
  • Flat feet
  • Flexible flat feet
  • Non-flexible flat feet (rigid)
  • Metatarsus adductus
  • Club Foot
  • Claw foot
  • Bunionette
  • Hammer toe
  • Foot sole pain
  • Toe pain (metatarsalgia)
  • Freiberg disease
  • Morton neuroma
  • Tendinitis and tendinopathies (inflammation and disorders of the leg tendons)
  • Childhood diseases

One of the specialized orthopedic fields relates to children. Pediatric orthopedic diseases are very various. Here are some of these diseases:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Growing pain
  • Rickets
  • The lameness of children
  • Pediatric arthritis
  • Arthrogryposis
  • Estrogen genesis imperfecta
  • Marble bone disease (osteopetrosis)
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Congenital dislocations of the hip joint
  • Pertussis
  • Congenital diseases of the skeletal system
  • Fractures of children


18- Tumors of the musculoskeletal system:

These tumors are divided into three types: benign, malignant, and moderate.

  • Benign tumors:
    • Osteochondroma
    • Simple bone cyst
    • Osteoids
    • Fibrous dysplasia
    • Enchondrom
    • Ollier's disease
    • Ganglion
    • Glomus tumor
    • Xanthoma
  • Malignant tumors:
    • Sarcoma Ewing
    • Chondrosarcoma
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Multiple myeloma



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