mammo screening digital tomosynthesis bilateral w cad

 

If you and those around you have breast cancer and want to find out more about available breast imaging.

If you want to know about digital mammograms with computer diagnostic systems

We recommend that you read on. In this article, we will talk about digital mammography and computer diagnostic systems.

 

Introduction

Breast cancer and its screening methods

What are the clinical signs and symptoms of breast cancer?

10 causes of breast cancer

What are the known methods for early detection of breast cancer?

Other signs and symptoms

Breast cancer screening

Breast cancer screening or diagnosis of breast masses

Lymph node metastasis and involvement

What is the meaning of screening?

Digital mammography

Digital mammography or complete digital mammography FFDM

What is breast tomosynthesis?

Why is breast tomosynthesis performed?

What is a mammogram?

When is digital mammography and cad used?

 

 

 

Introduction

Cancer is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Cancers will put a lot of pressure on most societies economically, health and psychologically, and certainly the most vulnerable sections of any country, as well as third world countries, will suffer the most from cancer.

There are different types of cancers, but some types of cancers are both more common and, unfortunately, their number is increasing day by day. Breast cancer is said to be the second most prevalent cancer in both sexes worldwide and it is the first type of cancer in women, which has the highest mortality rate in third world countries.

 

Breast cancer and its screening methods

According to reliable research and statistics, the breast is the most common place for malignancies to occur in women. Breast tissue is naturally affected by hormones in women during menstruation, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The cause of breast cancer is considered to be malignant proliferation in breast epithelial cells. Of course, with timely diagnosis and proper control, it can be managed and treated in the best way.

To prevent breast cancer, women need to be aware of the factors that cause it to avoid breast cancer predisposing factors.

Women are advised to perform routine care such as breast screening according to international protocols.

If we want to summarize in one sentence the cause of breast cancer, we must say that the cause of breast cancer is estrogen.

 

What are the clinical signs and symptoms of breast cancer?

In the early stages, cancer has no symptoms or manifestations. After a little progress, clinical symptoms may appear, and here are some of the most common ones.

  1. The first sign of a change in shape
  2. The second sign is a change in breast size
  3. The third sign is a change in the skin of the breast
  4. The fourth sign is a trough in the skin of the breast
  5. The fifth sign is a change in the shape and skin of the nipple
  6. The sixth sign of discharge, especially bloody discharge from the nipple
  7. And the seventh sign of a mass under the armpit

Given the high prevalence of cancer and the fact that this cancer will be easier and more successful treatment if detected in the early stages. To stay healthy, women need to know the facts about the disease, it’s symptoms, and the importance of breast cancer screening.

 

10 causes of breast cancer

The most important reasons that increase the risk of breast cancer are as follows:

  1. The first cause of a family history of breast cancer, especially in the mother , sister or daughter
  2. The second cause is a history of previous breast cancer in the individual
  3. The third cause is the age of the first childbirth over 35 years
  4. The fourth cause of infertility
  5. The fifth cause of premature puberty
  6. The sixth cause of late menopause
  7. The seventh cause of obesity after menopause
  8. The eighth cause of high consumption of animal fat in the diet
  9. The ninth cause of a history of radiation therapy and high radiation to the chest or neck and chest radiotherapy
  10.  The tenth cause of some benign breast diseases

 

Here you must know that if one of all the above conditions is present in a person, it does not mean that the person will definitely get this disease. These factors will only increase the risk of infection.

 

What are the known methods for early detection of breast cancer?

Note the following:

  1. The first method is breast self-examination and physical examination
  2. The second method is a clinical examination of the breast by a doctor
  3. The third method is to review the medical history
  4. The fourth method of mammography
  5. The fifth method of breast ultrasound
  6. Sixth MRI method
  7. Finally, the most definitive method for diagnosing cancer is a biopsy of suspected tissue.

 

Other signs and symptoms

  • Deformity in the nipple
  • Pain that does not go away after menstruation
  • A new mass that disappears after menstruation
  • Clear red, brown or yellow discharge from the tip of one breast
  • Redness, swelling and itching of the skin
  • Change the color and thickness of the skin
  • Sensitivity of the skin
  • And pimples on the chest for which there is no reason and does not heal
  • Swelling and lumps around the collarbone and under the arms
  • A hard mass that has irregular corners when touched
  • Inverted nipple or nipple trough
  • Change the size of one breast compared to the other
  • Trough at the level of the breast
  • The old mass that has now grown
  • Breast skin texture in the form of orange peel
  • Weight loss for no reason
  • Enlargement of axillary masses
  • Existence of visible veins on the chest

Again, if you have one or more of these symptoms, it does not mean that you have breast cancer. Nipple discharge can be caused by an infection, so it is best to see your doctor for evaluation if you have any of these symptoms.

 

Breast cancer screening

The biggest advantage of breast screening is that it accurately and early detects lumps in the breast.

Disadvantages of screening include the fact that sometimes the test result is reported incorrectly positively, and a benign mass in the image that is similar to a malignant mass is mistakenly reported as malignant, leading to other tests, wasting time, money, and stress on the patient and their family. But I have to say that this is a misdiagnosis of flaws that are really rare.

Remember that radiography and ultrasound methods are screening and early detection measures that in most cases, if accurate, can lead to early diagnosis of the lesion and also help in it’s proper and successful treatment, But if they are not accurate, they will change the course of diagnosis, control and treatment of the disease.

Unfortunately, today, with incorrect patterns and wrong lifestyle, the risk of various diseases such as breast cancer has increased, but with the increase of diseases, medical science has many advances in the field of diagnosis and treatment, which can offer new methods for its diagnosis and treatment at the same time as the disease grows.

In the following, we are going to talk about the evaluation of breast masses with the method of digital synthetic mammography through computer assistance.

 

Breast cancer screening or diagnosis of breast masses

It is estimated that 103 million new cases of breast cancer are reported in the United States in one year alone. In the same year that the study was conducted, 458,000 cases of breast cancer died from the complications of this cancer.

It used to be said that in the past, every eight hours, a woman would get breast cancer in her lifetime. But today, the number of women suffering from it has increased.

In developing and poor countries, breast cancer has a higher age and prevalence.

 

Lymph node metastasis and involvement

There is an important relationship between tumor size and axillary involvement. So early detection of breast cancer will have a very definite effect on the patient's prognosis and survival and determine the success rate of treatment.

 

What is the meaning of screening?

When a population is screened, the benefits of screening should be weighed against its disadvantages.

In breast cancer screening, the most important benefit is the reduction of mortality, and Screening losses include; He noted the amount of radiation received, the hassle and anxiety of going for screenings, the side effects of false-positive results, and the side effects of discovering cancers that may not occur at all during one's personal life and can be detected by screening.

Based on the evidence, the benefits of screening outweigh the harms.

Reports also say that based on the evidence received, the amount of profit and loss of the screening method is directly related to the age of the individual.

 

It is said that there is a major consensus around the world that women between the ages of 50 and 65 should be screened for breast cancer annually.

All studies have shown that this age group has significantly reduced their mortality by breast cancer screening.

Interestingly, the older a person gets, the greater the reduction in mortality. For example, in the 50-60 age group, the reduction rate was 14 percent, and in 67-year-olds, the mortality rate was 32 percent. This is probably due to the greater sensitivity of mammography in the elderly. Because breast tissue density is lower at this age and mammography becomes more sensitive. With age, on the other hand, the growth rate of breast tumors in these people is slower. Therefore, screening can clearly, dramatically and significantly reduce mortality with age.

 

There are no studies in women aged 40 to 49 that screening in this age group has reduced mortality.

But there are meta-analyzes that say that mammography in this age group has reduced mortality by 15 to 20 percent, and it is also suggested that breast cancer screening be started with mammography in this age group.

Another issue is how to get breast cancer screening in people 70 years or older? Studies have been limited in this period. A validated study of people over the age of 70 shows that breast cancer screening is useless in this age group. Another validated study in Sweden compared women between the ages of seventy and seventy-four who were screened for breast cancer to a population that had not been screened. And no significant change in the mortality rate of these two groups has been observed.

 

Digital mammography

The difference between breast tumor tissue and normal breast tissue is more pronounced in digital mammography than in conventional mammography. Especially in breasts that have dense tissue. So in younger women or women who have very firm breasts, digital mammography has a higher sensitivity and diagnostic properties for breast tumors.

 

Digital mammography or complete digital mammography FFDM

One of the systems and programs for imaging in this system is radiographic films using transducers that convert the received X-rays into mammographic images of the breast. This system is very similar to the system of digital cameras that produce quality images. Images must be transferred to a computer for long-term storage.

 

CAD:

Computer diagnostic systems actually detect abnormal areas that are dense as well as calcified masses in the breast in digital mammography images. In fact, when these systems are present, these areas are highlighted on the images. As a result, the radiologist observes these areas carefully, in other words, the abnormal dense part of the mass or dirt of the blood is not hidden from the radiologist's eyes.

 

What is breast tomosynthesis?

This procedure is actually a three-dimensional mammogram and is called digital breast tomosynthesis or DBT. In this method, imaging is done from different angles of the breast, and finally, the obtained image presents a three-dimensional and more complete image of the breast tissue to the doctor. In this way, 3D breast imaging, like CT scans, will be created by combining images from different angles, thin slices, and merging them together.

In some DBT systems, the dose used is slightly higher than the dose used in standard and standard mammograms. However, the dosage used in this method has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

 

Why is breast tomosynthesis performed?

Cancer screening test can be used in people who do not have the signs and symptoms of breast cancer but have some breast problems such as thickening of the layers or a suspicious mass.

Breast cancer screening uses both two-dimensional mammography images and classical mammography images, which are actually called two-dimensional mammograms. Because both categories can show specific abnormalities in the breast.

 

What is a mammogram?

Low-dose X-ray imaging used to examine the breast and changes in breast tissue is called mammography and is used to diagnose breast disease early.

Today, two of the advances in mammography include digital mammography and computer-aided diagnosis. Digital mammography is a mammography system in which solid detectors replace ordinary X-ray films and it can convert X-rays into electrical signals, and these electrical signals are used on a computer screen to form an image, and the image will be printed on films similar to old mammograms.

 

The computer-aided detection system uses a digital mammography image and can use a conventional mammography film or a digital mammography film to examine. Computer software highlights and highlights areas where there is dense, abnormal tissue, lumps, or calcium accumulation that may indicate malignancy and as a result, more and better and more complete abnormal areas of breast tissue come to the ophthalmologist.

 

When is digital mammography and cad used?

We said that mammography is a tool for examining breast masses in women who have no clinical signs and also people who have symptoms, such as pain and discharge from the nipple. This tactic is used to screen asymptomatic people and to continue the diagnosis in people with clinical signs.

 

Concluding remarks

Breast cancer is considered to be the most deadly cancer among sex-linked cancers in women.

It has a high prevalence, but we should know that if it is diagnosed in the early stages, the prognosis and response to treatment will be much better. Therefore, screening by various mammograms and imaging methods should be considered by women.

Screening methods such as standard and routine mammograms as well as complete digital mammography by computer diagnostics as well as 3D mammography and breast tomosynthesis are some of the screening methods that were described in the article you read.

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