If you want to know more about different types of vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis as well as fungal infections of the vagina, we recommend that you read on. What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?
What are the differences between the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis and the symptoms of yeast and fungal infections of the vagina? What are the symptoms of a vaginal fungal infection?
What is the diagnosis of fungal infections of the vagina and bacterial vaginosis and what are the differences between bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections of the vagina?
If you want to find the answers to the above questions, we recommend that you read more.
It is said that most women experience vaginal infections at least once in their lifetime. Sometimes in women, the symptoms of the infection are so annoying that they are forced to try home remedies and antibiotics to improve their symptoms. But sometimes it gets a little harder to tell because of the variety and specificity of the demonstrations.
If you want to know more about bacterial vaginosis and yeast and fungal infections of the vagina called vaginal candidiasis, read on.
What is vaginitis?
Doctors call vaginal irritation and inflammation vaginitis, which has symptoms such as irritability, itching of the genital area, and discharge. The cause of vaginitis can not be confirmed by doctors only on the basis of physical manifestations and physical examination, so to correctly diagnose the causes of this inflammation, special tests are required.
What are the common types of vaginal infections or types of vaginitis?
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Vaginal infection with Trichomonas
- Vaginal infection with Candida Vaginal fungal infection or vaginal thrush
In the following, we want to give a brief explanation about each of the above cases and compare bacterial vaginitis with fungal vaginal infections in terms of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
The most common cause of vaginitis in women of childbearing age is bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis actually indicates a change in the natural environment of the vagina. In other words, an imbalance is created in the vagina. For example, the natural acidic and alkaline environment of the vagina changesThis change occurs when vaginal anaerobic bacteria grow more than beneficial vaginal bacteria, and women who have multiple sexual partners and perform vaginal remedies are at risk for bacterial vaginosis.
What are the clinical signs and manifestations of bacterial vaginosis?
Common signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginitis include:
- Abnormal discharge and abnormal vaginal odor
- The smell of fish from vaginal discharge is said to be a manifestation of this type of vaginitis.
- Women will experience burning sensation when urinating around the outside of the vagina after high-risk sexual intercourse. There may also be itching and irritation on the outside of the vagina.
It is important to note that according to statistics, approximately 50% of women with bacterial vaginosis do not experience clinical signs and symptoms, and it is usually the gynecologist who observes the changes during a physical examination and confirms the disease by performing certain tests.
How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?
Diagnosis is made by examining a sample of vaginal discharge under a microscope. A doctor under a microscope can observe organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and make a definitive diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on the absence of lactobacilli and a decrease in vaginal acidity or a change in the normal pH of the vagina.
What are the complications of bacterial vaginosis?
It is said that there is a strong link between these bacterial infections of the vagina and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. These infections can also cause infertility or ectopic pregnancies. Also, women who experience the disorder may be more likely than others to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight babies.
These women are also more likely to experience other sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea.
Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis
Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis include:
- Vaginal discharge that is white or gray
- The smell of fish from the vagina, especially after vaginal intercourse
- Vaginal itching
- Burning when urinating
As mentioned earlier, almost half of women have no clinical symptoms
What causes bacterial vaginosis?
In the vagina of these women, the number of good bacteria, namely Lactobacillus and acidophilus of the vagina, is less than the number of bad bacteria and anaerobic bacteria in the vagina. The natural balance of these bacteria in the vagina is disturbed and bacterial vaginosis develops.
What are the risk factors for bacterial vaginosis?
- Multiple sexual partners or a new sexual partner
The link between bacterial vaginosis and female sexual activity is said to be unclear, but bacterial vaginosis is more common in women who have multiple sexual partners and have recently had a new sexual partner. There is also the possibility of getting this infection in gay women.
- Vaginal showers
Washing the vagina with water and cleansers will upset the balance of the natural environment of the vagina, and you should note that the vagina cleans itself and the vaginal douche is not necessary.
- Absence of lactobacilli in the vagina
If a woman’s natural vaginal environment does not have enough good bacteria, she is more likely to get this type of vaginitis.
Bacterial vaginosis is said to cause sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, chlamydia and gonorrhea under certain conditions, as well as an increased risk of infection after genital surgery such as hysterectomy. Women with bacterial vaginosis are also more likely to develop PID.
Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
There are several components to the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The first is to take a history, which includes questions about a person’s medical history and a history of sexually transmitted diseases and infections.
The second part is diagnosis by pelvic examination. The outside of the genital area is examined for evidence and symptoms, and often a two-fingered examination of the vagina is required. Your doctor may squeeze your vagina with the other hand while examining the vagina with the other finger, and examine the pelvic organs for any pathological features.
The third part is to prepare a sample of vaginal secretions to examine the overgrowth of non-beneficial anaerobic bacteria in the vagina, which are observed under a microscope. The doctor measures the acidity of the vagina with special pH strips, and an acidity above four and a half is a special sign for bacterial vaginosis.
What is the drug treatment for bacterial vaginosis?
Depending on the situation, your doctor will use the following treatments.
- The first drug is metronidazole
The drug is in the form of oral tablets, but it is also available in the form of a gel for topical use that is used inside the vagina to prevent gastrointestinal upset, nausea and abdominal pain .alcohol consumption during treatment and one day after treatment is prohibited.
- The second drug is Clindamycin a topical drug for intravaginal use
One of the negative effects of these creams is the weakening of the latex condoms during treatment by using the cream inside the vagina.
- The third drug is tinidazole yatin dumax
This medicine is given orally. The side effects of this medicine are mainly gastrointestinal. It is recommended to avoid alcohol consumption on treatment days and 24 hours after the end of the treatment period.
Recurrence of bacterial vaginosis
It is very common for symptoms to return after 3 to 12 months despite treatment
If symptoms recur much sooner after treatment, you should talk to your doctor about treatment options.
One option may be long-term use of metronidazole. There are other methods. Sometimes doctors also recommend the use of probiotics such as yogurt or foods containing lactobacilli. However, there is still little research on the benefits and harms of probiotic treatment.
Pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis
Complications of bacterial vaginosis when an infected woman experiences pregnancy include the following:
- Low birth weight baby
- Premature rupture of fetal membranes
- And postpartum uterine infection
There has also been evidence of an increased risk of miscarriage in the second trimester when bacterial vaginosis is present in a pregnant woman, but this still needs a lot of research to prove, and we must say that most women with normal pregnancies complete their pregnancies successfully. Treatment is extremely important for pregnant women.
Let’s look at another type of vaginal infection called Trichomonas infection.
The disease is transmitted through sexual intercourse and affects many people around the world every year. The cause of the infection is a single-celled parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. The urethra is the most common site of infection in men and the vagina is the most common site of infection with this unicellular parasite in women.
Symptoms of vaginal Trichomonas infection
Like many sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted diseases usually occur asymptomatically and most women have almost no symptoms.
Manifestations that occur in women usually occur within 5 to 7 days after suspected intercourse. Symptoms in women include:
- Vaginal discharge with yellow, green and gray color with bad vaginal odor
- Discomfort during intercourse
- Genital irritation
- Genital itching
- And in very rare cases, lower abdominal pain can be a manifestation of this disease.
In the absence of symptoms, men can transmit the disease to their sexual partner. To eradicate the parasite, it is preferable for both sexual partners to seek treatment together. Metronidazole is a drug used to treat people with this type of vaginitis or this sexually transmitted infection. People who take medication should not drink alcohol because they are exposed to digestive problems.
Research shows that women infected with this protozoan parasite are more likely to be infected with the HIV virus, and if a pregnant woman is infected with the parasite, she is more likely to give birth to a premature or underweight baby.
The best way to prevent this protozoan parasite is to avoid having sex with multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex. The use of latex male condoms also helps prevent the spread of transmission, but detailed studies have not yet been done on how to prevent infection.
Fungal infection of the vagina or vaginal thrush
Vaginal candidiasis is one of the things we are going to talk about.
Vaginal yeast infection or vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the leading causes of vaginal burning and itching in women.
Seventy-five percent of all women experience this symptomatic fungal infection at least once in their lifetime. Yeasts are always present in small numbers in a woman’s vagina, and symptoms only occur when the yeast is overgrown. Factors such as pregnancy Uncontrolled diabetes, as well as the use of antibiotics or oral contraceptives, cause these yeasts to grow more inside the vagina.
Causes of vaginal fungal infections
Other factors that put women at risk for vaginal yeast infections include:
- Use of vaginal showers
- Use of aromatic health sprays in the genital area
- Wear tight underwear made of synthetic fibers such as plastic fibers
The important point is that it is not yet clear whether yeast is transmitted through sexual intercourse.
Doctors say that vaginal candidiasis is caused by a fungus called Candida albicans, which normally lives in the mouth, throat, intestines and vagina, as well as on our skin, and usually does not cause any problems. When this fungus multiplies, it leads to infection. If the vaginal environment changes in a way that causes the fungus to overgrow and multiply, vaginal fungal infection occurs.
Symptoms of vaginal candidiasis
Symptoms of vaginal candidiasis usually include:
- Wounds in the vagina
- Vaginal itching
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Feeling uncomfortable when urinating
It is interesting to note that in most cases the symptoms are very mild. Some women may experience severe symptoms and may also have redness, swelling, and damage to the vaginal wall.
Risk factors for vaginal fungal infections
- Pregnant women
- Women with diabetes
- Women with defective immune systems, such as women undergoing chemotherapy or women with AIDS
- Or women taking oral hormonal contraceptives
- And women who have recently taken antibiotics.
They are more prone to this infection.
The use of cotton underwear can reduce the risk of fungal infections of the vagina. It is also recommended that do not use antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription and in excess of the prescribed dose.
How is a vaginal fungal infection diagnosed?
We need laboratory tests to diagnose a fungal infection.
The symptoms of a fungal infection of the vagina are very similar to the symptoms of other vaginal infections. Therefore, vaginal secretions should be sampled and sent to a laboratory for fungal culture and examination. We must say that if the fungus culture is positive, it does not always mean that it is the cause of the clinical symptoms of a woman with vaginal candidiasis. Because there are women who do not experience such symptoms despite having candida in the vagina.
Treatment of fungal infections of the vagina is done using antifungal drugs. In most cases, the topical form of antifungal compounds is used inside the vagina, and sometimes a single oral dose of fluconazole is required and prescribed by a doctor. If the fungal infection is severe, several doses of oral fluconazole or other topical medications such as flucytosine nystatin should be used. Recurrence of vaginal fungal infections is likely, and treatment for vaginal fungal infections will be long, usually three to six months.