What are the effects of diabetes mellitus on the retina? Are you aware of the ocular complications of diabetes mellitus?

Did you know that diabetes has side effects on the eyes and retina?

If you want to know about the ocular complications of diabetes and its effects on the retina behind the eye, we recommend that you read more.


what you will read next :



People with diabetes mellitus are said to be at risk for the most common complication of blindness, diabetic retinopathy.

Given the increasingly sedentary lifestyle of the machine in the world today, these people need to know that their bodies will not be able to properly absorb the sugar in the blood into the cells and use the sugar in the blood.

People with diabetes mellitus for some reason sugar can not enter the cells through the arteries and blood and burn them in the cell to provide energy, so the cells of these people have low energy and the person feels tired and hungry. The accumulation of blood sugar is increasing day by day.

All the complications and consequences of diabetes are due to excessive accumulation of blood sugar.

With the accumulation of sugar in the patient’s blood, in a test he notices an increase in his blood sugar level. When the disease persists, the accumulated sugar can cause inflammation and damage to the inner wall of the arteries throughout the body. Obviously, the narrow arteries, or so-called thin-walled vessels (at the fingertips in the retina), become inflamed, swollen, and damaged sooner.

Among the thin vessels that are damaged in people with diabetes as a result of diabetes mellitus are the delicate blood vessels of the retina.

The retina is the sensitive curtain of light under our eyes that plays a key role in our vision. The sensitive part of the network plays a key role in the moon bit. The macula has a yellow spot.

Thin blood vessels are among the thin vessels that are damaged in people with diabetes as a result of diabetes mellitus.

The retina is the sensitive curtain of light at the bottom of our eyes that plays an essential role in our vision.

The sensitive part of the network that plays a key role in our vision is the macula or yellow spot.


Vascular damage

Inflammation and serious damage to the inner retina of blood vessels in the retina is caused by the accumulation of blood sugar in people with diabetes mellitus.

Doctors use the term diabetic retinopathy to describe all retinal damage of diabetic origin.

Diabetic retinopathy is a term used by physicians to describe the above conditions.

We are going to talk about diabetic retinopathy or the problems that diabetes mellitus puts on the retina.

Problems that people with diabetes mellitus experience in the retina at the base of their eyes.

In the introduction, you noticed that damage to the narrow and delicate vessels of the retina caused by the accumulation of blood sugar in patients with diabetes mellitus causes a series of problems called diabetic retinopathy or diabetic retinopathy.

There are two different types of diabetic retinopathies

Let’s see what these problems are and what complications diabetes can cause in the retina.


What are the types of damage to the retina following diabetic retinopathy?

There are several types of retinal damage due to diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic retinopathy is divided into two general categories: the first category of retinal diseases without new vessels, Diabetic retinopathy of non-proliferative and the second category of retinal disease with the formation of new retinal vessels or proliferative retinopathies.

Diabetes and eye problems with diabetes at the base of the eye or diabetic retinopathies.

A person with diabetes should be aware that this disease can affect the eye in different ways and for example, these people suffer from cataracts more than normal population and cataracts of diabetics occur at a younger age and different characteristics and it has healthy people compared to cataracts.

Cataracts and glaucoma are more common in these people, and diabetic retinopathy or lightweight injury due to diabetes is a very common name.

Diabetic damage to the retina is the result of changes in blood vessels.


Definition of diabetic retinopathy

In simple language we should say, the disease and problems in the retina caused by diabetes mellitus is called diabetic radiculopathy, which is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina, and as a result of these injuries, blood or fluids and serum leak out into the damaged vessels.

In the initial phase (proliferative or non-proliferative phase) we will not see the presence of extra blood vessels, but in the more advanced phase the growth of abnormal vascular branches that are fragile and cluttered and have an abnormal structure can be seen in the retina (by ocular examination).

In the phase of proliferative retinopathy

As a result, the retina is destroyed in these people and the person realizes that the images around him are blurred and even wavy.


When do people get diabetic retinopathy?

You may be wondering when a person with diabetes mellitus will notice their retinal involvement with diabetes.

In short, doctors answer that the longer a person has had diabetes mellitus or in other words, the longer it has been since the onset of diabetes mellitus, the more likely it is that diabetic retinopathy will develop.

Diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness if left undiagnosed and untreated, but we must say that you should not worry If you are aware of the symptoms, this will make you see a doctor in time, your problems will be diagnosed and treated in time.


Is the disease symptomatic at all stages?

The answer to the above question is no. Diabetic retinopathy, which is in its early stages and is in its early stages, has no effect on the patient’s vision, but as it progresses, the complications gradually become more pronounced or follow an increase in ocular lesions. It is emphasized that once every 6 months, people with diabetes mellitus should normally see an ophthalmologist for an examination to begin the timely diagnosis and treatment of the complications of diabetes on the retina.


Description of different types of diabetic retinopathies

In the early stages, the small, narrow, delicate arteries behind your eyes, the retina, will be damaged by diabetes due to excessive sugar accumulation and inflammatory processes.

The vessel wall is damaged and weak and abnormal, so it causes blood and blood serum to leak through the defective wall.

When fluid retention occurs, the retina gradually becomes swollen or a deposit called exudate builds up.

The same swelling and swelling of the retina and exudate is due to leakage of fluid and blood from the damaged wall of the arteries at the base of the eye. Which is the main cause of the formation of this phase.

Proliferative retinopathy at this stage in the retina New blood vessels with completely abnormal structures grow. These vessels are completely abnormal and different from normal and healthy vessels, so they are very weak and fragile and cause the retina to be very weak. Abnormal bleeding is much more likely to cause the vitreous to become blurred. The vitreous becomes blurred. This turbidity causes light to shine from the mannequin to the base of the eye. It faces many obstacles and therefore the image is blurred.

A serious occurrence in people with retinal damage following diabetes is when abnormal blood is formed in the proliferative phase and it can cause the retina to separate from behind the eyelid, which is called retinal detachment.

This is where if we do not get the disease data in time, there will be a reduction in progressive diarrhea and even permanent blindness.


What happens in the process of diabetic retinopathy?

A person who has retinal damage due to diabetes is very likely to have intraocular bleeding. When intraocular bleeding begins, the person may not notice it and may not have any symptoms. But when the bleeding increases and progresses and continues and new vessels are added in the proliferative stage, they will have a serious impact on a person’s vision.

At first, it is common for bloodstains and leaks to leak through the walls of defective arteries, called exudates, to stay in the field of view of the oven, that is, when light passes through the pupil with these pieces of blood. In these stages, you should see a doctor immediately before the bleeding continues and becomes serious. If you have migraines, you should see a doctor immediately for diagnosis and treatment so that timely measures can be taken.

These hemorrhages are said to occur more than once, and most people with ocular hemorrhage suffer from sleep apnea following diabetic retinopathy.

There is a point, and that is , It sometimes happens that floating bloodstains clear on their own without treatment, but it is a matter of bleeding again after a while and a new visual impairment may develop. So if this is the first time you have severe blurred vision, be sure to see an ophthalmologist immediately.



Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathies It is estimated that approximately 700,000 people in the United States have advanced diabetic retinopathy. According to studies, about 65,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.

There is a stage of the above disorder that causes yellow spot edema or a sensitive area of ​​the network called the macula. This condition is called macular edema, which affects about 75,000 people annually in the United States.

And over a period of time, 500,000 people with diabetes in the United States have evidence of macular degeneration.

Another statement is that 80% of people over the age of 15 from the onset of diabetes develop diabetic retinopathy.

There are a lot of urges in the year that if you assume that people are not diagnosed and treated in time, you will see how many people with permanent blindness there are in the world.

The most common cause of blindness in the world is diabetic retinopathy and diabetes.


What are the signs and symptoms of retinal involvement due to diabetes mellitus?

Here are the clinical manifestations and signs and symptoms

  1. Deterioration and gradual decrease in vision
  2. Sudden loss of vision
  3. Flies in the field of view

It is called visual floaters

  1. Unclear vision
  2. Patchy vision
  3. eye redness
  4. eye’s pain


What are the four stages of diabetic retinopathy?

I have to say that from the time when the damage to the retinal artery wall begins and the so-called retinal injuries and problems begin until they reach the final stage, which is the proliferative stage, several stages take place.

  1. Non-pleural retinopathy Frativ‌

This stage is very benign and if it is diagnosed in time, it has a good prognosis and is in fact the initial phase, which is usually accompanied by swelling in the retinal vessels.


  1. Moderate non-proliferative retinopathy


  1. Severe non-proliferative retinopathy
  2. Proliferative retinopathy associated with the onset of abnormal retinal arteries

Hardening of vision in the dark and difficulty seeing at night Poor night vision Existence of shadows or parts that are out of sight.


Risk factors

Predisposing factors for diabetic retinopathy include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood cholesterol, pregnancy, and smoking, having diabetes mellitus for a long time, diabetes mellitus and poor control of the disease is controlled by the patient in the middle of diabetes or poor control and blackness of black races or races that are Native American or Hispanic.


How is diabetic retinopathy diagnosed?

Diabetic radiculopathy and macular edema are diagnosed by a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist and specialized tools. The examinations performed are as follows:

  1. Optometry In this stage, the amount of vision of the person at different distances should be evaluated. The second stage of eye examination with people.

This means that before the doctor sees your eyes with a specialized device, they use a drop. A drop is poured into your eye to make the pupil hole widen so that the doctor can better examine the inside of the eye and the bottom of the eye.

  1. Tonometry is actually a technique in which the pressure inside the eyeball is measured.



It happens that in a diabetic person who is being treated for diabetes due to chemotherapy of the eye and retina, in the first three stages when there is no new blood vessel in the retina, no special treatment will be needed. The only thing I have in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is laser treatment that takes time.

The only stage in which the non-proliferative phase of treatment requires is macular edema.

Blood sugar and blood lipids should be monitored carefully when a patient has recurrent diabetic retinopathy.

Advanced retinopathy slows down if the controls are done correctly and the patient is followed.

When retinopathy progresses, that means the arteries become enlarged, laser treatment in this method will cause the abnormal blood vessels with abnormally fragile and loose walls to disappear, and since a large number of laser beams have to be seen for more than one session. The person needs proliferative laser therapy for complete treatment of dermatitis proliferative nephropathy.

The important thing is that with this method, tomorrow night vision and darkness may be slightly disturbed.

If the bleeding is so severe that the person’s vision is seriously threatened and cannot be treated with laser, the patient may need Vitrectomy. Blood that has accumulated in the posterior chamber should be removed from the center of the eye.


What measures are needed to prevent diabetic retinopathy?

It is emphasized that if a person has diabetes, he should take turns at least every 12 months and in certain well circumstances, every six months, a complete eye examination with dilated pupil should be performed by an ophthalmologist, and it is better to consider the following points to prevent eye injuries in diabetes.

The first point is that diabetic retinopathy, as I said in the early stages, may progress for a long time without obvious symptoms and without the person having the symptoms.

Advanced diabetic retinopathies may sometimes not cause vision problems despite their presence, but we must say that most brand-name injuries are associated with a very high risk of blindness.

Next Tip ,do not worry after you have been examined by an ophthalmologist and then we usually have. Now that the issue has been diagnosed, adequate treatment can be done to prevent severe vision loss.

Another point: People with diabetes, as well as other eye diseases, should see their ophthalmologist at shorter intervals. We must emphasize that this disease, if not diagnosed and treated in time, in 95% of cases with permanent blindness. And finally, we must say that people who keep their blood sugar levels under control and regularly follow the control and management of blood sugar and refer to the relevant doctor carefully They usually do not have serious side effects and even these people need less laser treatment.


Eye network and anatomy

The retina is a very sensitive membrane of the eye that lined the bottom of the eye. In fact, the images created on this membrane must be converted into nerve waves and transmitted through the optic nerve to the visual perception center in the brain. Transmission is done by the optic nerve. The sensitive center of vision is called the macula and it is about a few millimeters in diameter, and most of our visual acuity depends on this part of the retina. If this area is damaged, vision will be reduced before 95%.

The retina is a layer of light-evolving neurons that are sensitive to light

The posterior chamber of our eye is nourished by a layer called the choroid

The retina is said to be made up of five layers of nerve cells

When light enters the eye, it passes through the pupil and lens, enters the posterior chamber of the eye, strikes the retina, and is received through the cells of the outer layer of the retina. These cells convert the electromagnetic current of light received into a neural message and transmit it through horizontal cells to the retinal bipolar cells, thus sending the message to the optic nerve reaches and communicates to the brain.

In the retina, there is a point called the blind spot or optic disc, which is behind the network and is actually a place where the axonal strands of neurons join at the apex of the optic nerve, which eventually forms the optic nerve, and it is actually the optic nerve at this point that travels out of the retina to the brain.


Macular yellow spot

It is located near the visual disc and in front of the pupil. It has a diameter of one and a half millimeters. The central part of the yellow spot is called the Fovea centralis, which has the highest visual acuity.

One of the characteristics of the yellow spot center is that there are no blood vessels and there is the highest density of guiding nerve cells in this area, so light will shine directly on the light-receiving cone nerve cells.


Concluding remarks

It should be noted that about one third of all diabetics develop diabetic retinopathy, so it is important that you become familiar with the symptoms of this important disorder and know that if you see a doctor late and the disorder is diagnosed or treated late, it can cause Lead to permanent blindness of the affected eye.

Therefore, knowing the effects of diabetes mellitus on the retina and the symptoms and manifestations, we must emphasize that you should take regular periodic examinations in ideal conditions every 6 months and on average and acceptable every twelfth by a physician.