Will the life expectancy of people undergoing heart valve replacement surgery be different from those of healthy peers? What will be the life expectancy after heart valve replacement? If you want to know more about survival rate in people who have had valve replacement surgery, read on.
Know the valves of the heart
The human heart has four chambers, the two upper chambers are called the atria (right atrium and left atrium), there is a muscular wall between the right and left atria, and in a healthy human there should be no connection between the two atria.
The two lower cavities are called the ventricles (right ventricle and left ventricle), and there is a complete wall between both ventricles that prevents the two ventricles from connecting.
Between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the tricuspid valve. From the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery must carry blood to the lungs for oxygenation. The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery is called the pulmonary valve.
The valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called the mitral valve. Blood that enters the aortic artery from the left ventricle to be distributed throughout the body passes through a valve between the left ventricle and the aortic artery called the aortic valve.
The most common heart valves that undergo replacement surgery are:
- Mitral valve
- Aortic valve
- Tricuspid and pulmonary valves require surgery in less than two adults.
What causes mitral and aortic valve replacement?
- Replacing a narrowed valve:
Aortic valve stenosis or narrowing of the aortic valve
- Replacing a leaky valve:
Aortic regurgitation or aortic insufficiency:
The term means that the valve has become dysfunctional and allows blood that has entered the aortic artery from the left ventricle to return to the left ventricle, so in people with AR or AI, the left ventricle will not be able to pump enough blood. It enters the aorta, so blood supply and distribution to all cells in the body are impaired and the heart will make changes in its structure to compensate for the deficiency, which will eventually lead to heart failure.
- Mitral regurgitation:
Oxygen-containing blood that enters the right atrium from the lungs must pass through the mitral valve and enter the left ventricle. If there is MR, the blood that enters the left ventricle will bounce back. The person suffers from shortness of breath and pulmonary edema or pulmonary edema, arrhythmias of the heart, (asymmetry in the heartbeat pattern occurs) and the person will suffer from chest pain.
Types of options available in heart valve replacement surgery
- Mechanical valve:
In this method of deployment Long-lasting valve made of durable materials will be used
- Tissue valve:
It can be from human or animal donor tissue
- TAV1 / TAVR procedure:
Trans catheter aortic valve implantation /Transcatether aortic valve replacement
- Ross procedure:
In this technique, a borrowing your healthy valve is transferred to the site of the damaged valve, which is usually the aortic valve.
There are newer techniques today.
Your doctor will use a method and technique appropriate to your condition, depending on the condition of your damaged valve, the type of valve damage, and your underlying disease and general health. A technique should be chosen that is less risky depending on your condition. Have.
Some techniques require that a person take anticoagulants for the rest of his or her life after undergoing valve replacement surgery.
Open heart surgery is commonly used to repair or replace a heart valve, but less invasive procedures have been developed, in which the incision is shorter. The pain of the patient and the length of hospital stay and the full recovery period will be shorter.
Your surgeon may think that just inserting a loop to support the valve is enough to fix the defect in your damaged valve, and sometimes it may be necessary to completely remove all the damaged tissue from your body. And replace them with artificial valves made of plastic or carbon-coated tissue, which can be donated to humans (previously used in some animals’ heart valves).
Symptoms of heart valve dysfunction
Symptoms that may force your doctor to replace or repair your heart valve include:
- Chest pain
- High heart rate
- Swelling of the arms and legs and sometimes swelling of the abdomen
- Fluid retention and weight gain due to valve insufficiency
- Shortness of breath and other respiratory problems
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- And …
What are the complications after surgery to repair or replace heart valves?
- Out-of-control bleeding during and after surgery
- Pneumonia or infection of the lung tissue
- Inflammation of the pancreas or pancreatitis
- Making blood clots that can travel to the brain and lungs and cause strokes or pulmonary embolism
- Asymmetry of activity rhythm and heart rate (cardiac arrhythmia)
- Improper valve replacement or repair
Postoperative risk factors
After the operation, when you are discharged from the hospital after a proper period of hospitalization, you should inform your doctor immediately if you encounter one or more of the following:
- Difficulty breathing and shortness of breath
- Irregular or rapid heartbeat
- New swelling in the hands and feet
- Increased swelling, pain, and redness, and discharge from the incision site
- Nausea or vomiting
What is the survival rate after cardiac valve replacement surgery?
The question that may arise for you is whether survival will be different when different heart valves are replaced?
Research at the University of Aarhus in Denmark suggests that open heart surgery with new modern techniques may reduce complications and mortality and increase survival.
However, eight to ten years after the time of heart valve replacement surgery, the probability of death of people who have had repair and valve replacement with open heart surgery will be eighty percent higher than other people in the population.
Doctors may need to follow the symptoms of these people for years to determine exactly what causes their sudden death. All follow-ups should be recorded in the file.
For example, in one study it was said that if the open heart technique is used on a person and during which coronary artery bypass grafting is performed, if a person survives one month after the operation, his chances of survival will be the same as other people in the population. Both groups will be the same. This process will continue for ten years. And then, as the process of vascular injury progresses and bypass arteries become inoperable, sudden deaths due to cardiovascular events occur.
Heart valve replacement syndrome surgery survival rate elderly
With age, the number and severity of disorders and underlying diseases will increase. Certainly, the type of anesthesia in a young or middle-aged person will be different from the old person.
Heart valve repair or replacement is a solution to improve heart valve disease in cases where the severity of heart valve damage has reached such a level that you experience the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath
- Bruising of the nail bed and bruising of the lips and bruising inside the mouth
- Chest pain
In this case, replacing the defective valve will be the only way to save lives
Factors affecting postoperative complications and survival rate
The factors affecting complications and survival rate are discussed below:
- Aortic valve replacement:
Both congenital and acquired diseases can cause problems with your aortic valve.
Recent studies show that ninety-four percent of adults who undergo aortic valve replacement will survive five years after surgery.
Survival rate will depend on the following factors:
- Over all health
- Other medical conditions you have
- Heart function
- mitral valve replacement:
Both biological valves and artificial and metal valves can be used in this surgery. If a metal prosthetic valve is used, lifelong can remain, but it will require you to take blood-thinning medications constantly to prevent blood clots and clot complications. Biological valves last ten to twenty years but do not require blood-thinning drugs.
Ninety-one percent of adults who have undergone mitral valve replacement surgery are said to survive five years after surgery.
The following factors affect survival:
- Overall health
- Other medical conditions you have
- Heart function
- Survival rate in the simultaneous replacement of two valves or Double valve replacement:
Simultaneous mitral and aortic valve replacement is less common, and in cases where it is performed, a five-year or slightly higher survival rate is predicted.
- Pulmonary valve replacement:
Usually, what causes your doctor to do this is pulmonary stenosis.
Endocarditis and infections
And carcinoid syndrome (small, progressive tumors in the gastrointestinal tract)
They can be the cause of pulmonary valve stenosis
The final words
A study has shown that the average survival in people who pass the first month after live valve replacement surgery was 91.90 months, while the average survival in the same age group was 94.92 months.
Valve heart surgery is usually performed openly and it is clear that the possible complications will increase at older ages because Apple Hart surgery is a major surgery.
Long-term survival after surgical aortic valve replacement among patients over 65 years of age
Long-term survival following surgical AVR in patients over 65 years of age is excellent and up to 8 years is comparable to the matched general population.
Mitral valve repair versus replacement in the elderly: Short-term and long-term outcomes.