With the spread of AIDS, Karposi sarcoma, (KS), has become a common cancer among homosexuals with AIDS, but only those with AIDS do not develop Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Read on to learn more about Kaposi’s sarcoma tumor.
Kaposi’s sarcoma can be in the range of symptoms, can be a very slow-growing, non-invasive tumor (mostly in very old men living in Mediterranean countries without AIDS), It may be a progressive tumor and have a so-called rapid manifestation.
In the non-invasive form and with the slow growth of Kaposi’s sarcoma, there is limited and very mild involvement of the skin or lymph nodes and it is completely quiet.
In the aggressive and fulminant form, which is more common in people with AIDS, the person will have very extensive skin involvement and internal visceral involvement.
Physicians refer to sarcoma as tumors that originate in the body’s connective tissues, such as skin and arteries, and most sarcomas are malignant tumors.
Is an infectious agent involved in causing Kaposi’s sarcoma?
Doctors believe that because Kaposi’s sarcoma is much more severe in people with AIDS who are gay, it is possible that a virus from the herpes family (a group of herpes viruses) may be involved in these cases, which is a common factor in sexual transmission.
Read more about Kaposi’s sarcoma below.
It is said that in 1995, during the first AIDS epidemic in countries around the world, doctors observed that seventy-nine percent of all cases of AIDS had Kaposi’s sarcoma. With the control of HIV / AIDS transmission, this percentage gradually fell below one percent by year 1997.
Doctors say Kaposi’s sarcoma can manifest in any of the clinical stages of HIV infection.
Human herpes virus type HHV 8 has been implicated in the transmission and spread of Kaposi’s sarcoma among people living with AIDS.
What tissues does Kaposi Sarcoma consist of?
Lymphatic and blood vessel wall cells are said to be the origin of Kaposi sarcoma tumor.
By engaging these arteries, tumors form on the surface of the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs.
In whom is Kaposi’s sarcoma more common?
Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide are diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma each year.
From these patients
95% have HIV or AIDS infection
0.33 % About 5% have no HIV infection and most are elderly or people with a weakened immune system or weakened immune system.
There are six cases of Kaposi sarcoma per million populations in the United States today, and African Americans make up the majority of Kaposi sarcoma patients in the United States.
Gay people with AIDS are significantly more likely to develop Kaposi’s sarcoma than non-gay people with AIDS in Europe and the United States, but this has not been the case in Africans.
Previously, Kaposi sarcoma was found only in very old men in Mediterranean countries that was very quiet and limited to skin and non-invasive.
Signs and symptoms in patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma
Skin rashes with small protrusions that are pink, brown, black, or red that can be seen anywhere on the skin of the body and inside the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat are painless.
In severe cases, these rashes also occur on the intestines and lungs and cause unexplained pulmonary and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Swelling of the lymph nodes due to obstruction of the lymphatic vessels (due to a tumor), which doctors call lymph node swelling lymphadenopathy
- Unexplained abdominal pain
- Unexplained stomach pains.
- Unjustified cough
- Chest pain without cause
Demonstrations in the elderly are as follows:
It is most common in older men in Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean coast.
Red, purple, bluish, pink, or brown skin lesions on the hands and feet.
Occasionally, these lesions may sometimes be seen in the stomach and early small intestine during endoscopy.
Also, in the elderly, skin lesions are often painless, and as they increase in size, they may become symptomatic and appear on the face, hands, feet, and penis.
Four types of Kaposi sarcoma
- People with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS)
- People with weakened immune systems, such as people with organ transplants
- Older men of Eastern Europe and Mediterranean
- African people living around the equator
The most important and main diagnostic criterion is a biopsy of the sample and a suspected skin, visceral or mucosal lesion. The doctor removes some of the suspicious tissue and sends it to a pathology lab for study under a microscope.
If the case has gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, the following measures should also be used:
- Simple chest photo
The lungs are examined for abnormal lesions
- A secret blood test in the stool or OB test
Shortness of breath and bloody sputum are said to be present if the lungs are involved, so by bronchoscopy, the tissues of these organs are examined for the presence of a tumor by sending a thin tube equipped with a camera into the trachea and lungs.
Vomiting, bloody stools, jaundice, and whites of the eyes are involved in the gastrointestinal tract, so endoscopy can examine the esophagus and stomach and early small intestine by sending a tube equipped with a thin camera. And a colonoscopy can assess the presence of a large intestine by sending a thin rod equipped with a camera.
Treatment of Kaposi sarcoma
After the diagnosis is confirmed, which is actually obtained by examining the sample taken from the lesion on the skin or suspicious lesions removed by bronchoscopy, endoscopy or colonoscopy, the necessary treatments are planned according to the location of the lesions and symptoms.
- Type of disorder:
That is, whether Kaposi’s sarcoma is associated with AIDS, immunosuppression, or organ transplants.
- Number of tumors, location of tumors:
Whether the tumor is on the skin or in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs is part of the treatment plan
- General health status of the affected person
All three of these factors are important in treatment planning.
In the treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with AIDS:
Anti-AIDS drugs are prescribed to reduce immunity by reducing the load on viruses.
In the treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with organ transplantation:
Discontinue or modify the dose of immunosuppressive drugs or change the anti-transplant rejection drug treatment program
Skin surface tumors with the following treatments:
- Retinoid drugs
- Intralesional injections, such as injecting vinblastine into the skin
- Cryotherapy or treatment of skin surface tumor by cryopreservation
- Very minor superficial surgeries
If the tumor is in the gastrointestinal tract, chemotherapy with the following drugs can be used:
Radiotherapy may also be used for lung involvement
Kaposi’s Sarcoma tumor is a rare tumor and can only be disrupted in immunocompromised individuals and will be with no symptoms in immunocompromised individuals.