You may have experienced pain in the front of the leg after a long period of exercise or a busy day of constant walking and running. Shin splints are pain in the front and inside of the leg (especially in people who run a lot). ) And is also called the ‘medial tibia stress syndrome’ .
Introduction to leg anatomy
The human tibia consists of two bones, the tibia or or shin bone inside, which as the name implies is a large bone. This bone is the largest bone in humans after the femur. The second tibia is located on the outside of the leg. Located is called fibula.
Many muscles attach to these two bones from the front and back, which cause movements in the wrists and toes as they contract.
One of these muscles that connects to the front of the tibia is called the anterior tibialis muscle, where the tendon of this muscle attaches to the front of the foot from below.
The posterior tibialis muscle is attached to the tibia at the back of the leg, and its tendon attaches to the sole of the foot at the bottom.
What causes shin splints?
In short, shin splints are the result of excessive and repetitive movements of the bones and muscles of the calf.
In fact, following repetitive movements, the tendons, membranes on the bones (periosteum) and the muscles around the tibia, or shin bone, become inflamed, causing pain at the inner edge of the shin bone, where the muscles attach to the bone.
Who is at risk for shin splints?
- Athletes who have started a new training program.
- People who exercise on hard and ramp.
- Sudden change in speed and direction of running
- Increase exercise hours or increase exercise days
- People with flat feet (flat feet increase pressure on the calf muscles during exercise) .
- Exercise or walk with non-standard shoes
- Runners and jumpers
- Professional dancers
- Soldiers and military
What are the symptoms of people with shin splints?
The most common symptom in patients is pain that is felt along the edge (border) and in front of the tibia.
Specifications of shin splint pain
- Sharp pain similar to the pain felt when shaving hair
- Stabbing or dull pain
- Pain that occurs during exercise or after exercise.
- Pain that is felt in the morning after waking up.
- Pain is felt in the area that is three to fifteen centimeters higher than the inner ankle.
- The area is sometimes painful to the touch.
- Occasionally there is a slight swelling in the inside and front of the leg.
What are the differential diagnoses of shin splints?
When you see a doctor for evaluation and treatment of shin splint pain, your doctor, in addition to a thorough examination, carefully examines other possible causes of leg pain, including the following:
Stress Frequencies :
These are very delicate fractures that occur in the tibia due to overuse and repetitive activity.
Inflammation of the tendons (tendonitis) :
The tendons attach our muscles to the bones. Excessive movement of the bones can cause inflammation of the tendons or tendinitis. There are also sometimes very small tears in the tendons of active muscles that cause pain similar to leg pain.
Coronary External Compartment Syndrome :
Occasional contractions and movements of the calf muscles increase the pressure in the calf compartments, which usually reduces the pressure and pain by stopping exercise.
Sometimes X-rays may be needed to rule out other causes.
Keep in mind that if your shin splint pain is not reduced by routine treatments, you are more likely to have one of the above diagnoses.
Shin splint treatment
Treatments fall into two general categories:
Non-surgical Shin splint treatments
Reduce or stop any exercises that cause pain.
Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
Such as ibuprofen and naproxen
You can pour some ice into a nylon bag and wrap a towel or a thin cloth around the nylon and place this pack on the sore spot several times a day for twenty minutes. Avoid direct contact of the ice with your skin.
Use of elastic compression bandages:
Standard bandages can prevent further swelling.
Stretching the muscles in the front and bottom of the leg can relieve the pain of the splint to some extent.
Use appropriate and standard shoes.
Standard shoe insole:
People with flat feet or people who have frequent shin splints benefit from putting a standard insole inside their shoes. These insoles actually help keep your feet and heels in alignment and prevent lower part of the leg from excessive stress.
Surgical splint treatments:
Most patients with shin splint pain are cured by non-surgical methods, and only a very small number of patients require surgical procedures.
Types of shin splints
Anterior shin splint:
It is seen in people who are runners, or after a period of not having movement and standing, start running at once, or people who walk a long distance on their toes, or wear inappropriate shoes when running, exercising and exercising.
Posterior shin splint:
It happens when there is no balance between leg muscles and calf muscles
People who have flat (inflexible) soles or those whose calf muscles are stiff are more likely to have this pain.
People with flat feet, every time they put their feet on the ground, the posterior tibialis muscle behind the leg and the tendon that connects to the sole of the foot stretch, causing inflammation and pain if repeated movement.
When can we return to exercise after shin splint treatment?
You should spend at least two weeks without pain. Only then can you exercise lightly with complete caution.
What can we do to prevent recurrence of shin splints?
- Be sure to warm up well and do stretching exercises before a race or strenuous exercise, and do not do exercise and activity without preparation.
- Increasing the intensity of the exercises, increasing the speed, changing the type of exercise should be done step by step and gradually.
- Do not exercise without standard shoes.
- You can also use side sports such as cycling and swimming for better physical fitness.
- As soon as you feel pain, stop the activity and apply a cold compress on that area.