If you want to know more about the survival of people with end-stage ovarian cancer, we recommend that you read on.
Each cell in the body can become a cancer cell and spread from its original location to the surrounding area or to distant organs. It used to be said that ovarian cancers and tumors only originated in the ovaries, meaning that they only originated in the ovaries, but recently it has been observed that many ovarian cancers may originate in the cells at the end of the fallopian tubes. In the following, we are going to explain a little about this cancer and also talk about the life expectancy of patients with the last stages of ovarian cancer.
Ovaries and ovarian cancers
The reproductive glands in women are called ovaries. The eggs that are necessary for reproduction in women mature in the ovary, then reach the uterus through the fallopian tubes and settle there. Fertilization is often done inside the fallopian tube and the fertilized cell reaches the uterine wall after a few divisions. And implants in it, and thus the new embryo begins to grow in the wall of the uterus.
The ovaries are the main source of the production of the estrogen and progesterone. In women, the ovaries are made up of three types of cells, and it is obvious that each of these cells can cause a specific type of ovarian tumor.
Types of ovarian tumors
The types of ovarian tumors are as follows:
- Germ cell tumors or germ cell tumors:
These tumors originate from egg-producing cells. Most germ cell tumors are benign, but some can be cancerous. Ovarian germ cell carcinomas can be life-threatening, only less than two percent of all ovarian cancers fall into this category and it is generally said that ninety percent or more than ninety percent of infected patients will survive at least five years after diagnosis. There are several types of these tumors. The most common types of cancerous tumors are choriocarcinomas.
- Choriocarcinoma and yellow sac tumor:
Tumors are a type of malignancy and usually affect young girls and women. They tend to grow and spread very quickly but are usually very sensitive to chemotherapy.
- Epithelial tumors:
These tumors originate from cells that line the outer surface of the ovaries. The most common cancers and ovarian tumors are said to originate in this group.
These tumors can be benign, or they can be borderline or slightly malignant, or even completely malignant.
There are several types of these tumors that are called by many names. Malignant or cancerous epithelial tumors are called ovarian carcinoma by doctors. Eighty-five to ninety percent of all malignant ovarian cancers are of this type. Ovarian carcinoma can have four different types, the most common of which is serous ovarian carcinoma with a prevalence of fifty-two percent among all ovarian carcinomas.
- Stromal tumors:
These tumors start in the structural tissues that hold the ovaries together, and these tumors can produce large amounts of the estrogen and progesterone hormones.
What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?
- age increasing
- Obesity and overweight
- Postmenopausal hormone therapy (people who use hormone replacement therapy after menopause.)
- Women who have used fertility treatments
- Having a familial cancer syndrome
- Having children after a full-term pregnancy puts women at risk for ovarian cancer.
Androgens and talcum powder diets! are among the factors whose effects on increasing the risk of ovarian cancer remain unclear. Three factors are said to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. These three factors are:
- Pregnancy control
Epidemiology of ovarian cancer
It is said that in 2020 about 21750 new cases of ovarian cancer have been identified. Also in 2020,13940 women died of complications of ovarian cancer.
The US figures show that the death rate from ovarian cancer has dropped dramatically in the last 40 years.
What are the clinical signs, symptoms, and signs of ovarian cancer?
- Swelling of the abdomen
- Feeling premature enough to eat
- Weight loss and changes in bowel habits such as constipation
- Increased need to urinate
- Feeling uncomfortable in the pelvic area.
It is often said that flatulence, pelvic pain, and abdominal pain, as well as a feeling of fullness and satiety immediately after eating small amounts of food, as well as the need to urinate frequently, are among the first signs and symptoms of a person with an ovarian tumor.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer
After taking an accurate history and recording the history of the patient’s previous illnesses and family history of diseases and performing a complete pelvic eczema, two tests are usually performed by doctors to check for ovarian tumors.
These two tests are as follows:
One is transvaginal ultrasound and the other is taking blood to assess a specific blood factor called CA 125.
However, the only way to definitively confirm and diagnose ovarian cancer is to do a biopsy or take a tissue sample. The pathologist examines the cells obtained from the biopsy under a microscope. This process is usually performed during surgery. In fact, the surgery that is performed will be both diagnostic and at the same time as removing the involved tissues in the treatment.
What is the stage of ovarian cancer?
After the doctor has diagnosed ovarian cancer, he tries to find out if the ovarian cancer has spread and if it has spread, to what extent? This process is called staging.
The stage at which the tumor is located will describe how far the cancer has spread in the body. This step helps to determine the severity of the cancer to determine the patient’s survival and also the best way to treat the cancer. Doctors will definitely use the stage of the tumor when talking about survival statistics. Ovarian cancer is classified from stage one to stage four. It is said that the lower the number, the less cancer has spread and is in the early stages. That means that cancer in stage one is less advanced than cancer in stage four.
We must also say that each person will experience a unique risk of cancer. But in general, cancers that are in the same stage will have the same and almost the same conditions.
One of the goals of surgeons in ovarian cancer surgery is to take tissue samples. This sample is required for both diagnosis and staging. Tissue samples were also taken from different parts of the pelvis and abdomen and should be examined in a laboratory to determine the extent of tumor spread.
How is ovarian cancer staged and diagnosed?
There are two systems in the world for staging ovarian cancer. There are different names for these two systems, but they are basically the same. Both systems use three main factors in the classification and staging of ovarian cancer, which are as follows:
- The tumor size: this criterion is usually indicated by the capital letter T. In fact, at this stage we want to determine whether the cancer has reached outside the ovary or fallopian tube? Has the cancer spread to pelvic organs such as the uterus or bladder or not?
- the spread of ovarian tumors to adjacent lymph nodes. This part is indicated by the capital letter N. In this section, the doctor wants to determine if the ovarian cancer has spread to the pelvic lymph nodes or around the aorta. The glands around the aorta are also called paraaortic lymph nodes.
- Distant expansion or metastasis, This part is indicated by the capital letter M, the doctor wants to specify Does ovarian cancer spread to fluids around the lungs or distant organs such as the liver and bones or not?
Ovarian tumor stages
The first stage of ovarian cancer tumor:
In the first stage of ovarian cancer, the outside of the ovary is not involved. Stage 1, A means that ovarian cancer only exists in one ovary. If stage 1 is B, it means that the cancer has affected both ovaries of the person.
Stage A CB means that one or both ovaries are involved and contain cancer cells. The contents of the cancer cells have spread out of the affected ovary, or the cancer cells are found in the fluid obtained by rinsing the abdominal cavity following surgery.
Second stage of ovarian cancer:
Stage Two Ovarian Cancers, The cancer affects one or both of a person’s ovaries and usually spreads to the inside of the pelvis. Stage two means that malignant cells have spread from the ovaries to ovarian tubes or uterus, or both. Stage two ovarian cancer means that the cancer has spread to nearby organs near the ovary, such as the bladder, colon, or rectum.
Stage three ovarian cancer:
When ovarian cancer enters stage three, cancer is present in one or both ovaries, and cancer cells have spread to the abdomen or lymph nodes in the abdomen. Stage three of ovarian cancer is when the cancer has spread to organs near the pelvis.
Cancer cells may be found on the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. Stage three ovarian tumors means that cancer cells are found outside the spleen or liver or have spread to the lymph nodes.
Ovarian tumor stages
When the ovarian tumor is in stage four, it is actually the most advanced stage in the spread of ovarian cancer. Stage four of ovarian cancer means that the tumor has spread to distant areas and organs farther away from the ovary.
In stage four of the ovarian tumor, ovarian cancer cells are found inside the fluid that surrounds the lungs. Stage four ovarian cancer means that the ovarian cells have reached the tissues of the liver or spleen and distant lymph nodes or other distant organs such as the tissues of the lungs, brain and skin.
Prognosis of ovarian cancer
The prognosis of a person with ovarian cancer depends entirely on the stage of the cancer and the pathological type of ovarian tumor. As mentioned, there are three distinct types of ovarian cancer tumors. It is estimated that more than 90% of all ovarian cancers are ovarian epithelial tumors. 7% of tumors are ovarian tumors, Stromal tumors and the rest originate from ovarian germ cells.
Physicians who describe and study the survival of patients with ovarian tumors often use the term five-year relative survival rate.
In general, we should say that the five-year survival in the whole set of three types of ovarian tumors will be forty to forty-four percent.
Of course, early detection of the tumor, as well as faster initiation of treatment, will provide a better prognosis for the person. If the ovarian tumor is found in the first stage and treated, the 50-year chance of survival is about ninety-two percent. Unfortunately, only about 15% of ovarian cancers are diagnosed in the early stages and in the first stage.
What is life like after being diagnosed with ovarian cancer?
In some people who have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer, treatment may kill the cancer. Complete treatment can be very stressful for the sufferer. Ovarian cancer goes away in some people when treatment is over, but there is always concern about the disease returning.
Recurrence of the disease is very common in ovarian cancer. Some people die even after being treated for ovarian cancer. Remember that living with cancer always goes on, although it can be difficult and very stressful.
Among the actions you should take during this period are the following:
- Have a regular schedule for follow-up examinations
- Make a list of side effects that you may have late or in the future and know when to call your doctor
- Be sure to follow a healthy diet
- Get regular physical activity and exercise
- If your treatment is over, it is likely that you will be able to make further visits to your doctor in the years to come.
- Keep in mind that it is very important to take care of all subsequent appointments with your doctor. During these follow-up visits, your doctor will be responsible for any issues you may have. He or she may also perform new tests, such as lab tests, x-rays, or scans, to monitor for cancer symptoms and side effects.
Some side effects may follow chemotherapy. Some of these take a long time, and you may not even notice them for years. As a result, you realize the importance of your regular doctor visits. The number of follow-up visits will depend on the stage of your cancer and the risk of recurrence.
Your doctor will usually recommend that you see him or her every two to four months early in your treatment, and then every three to six months for a thorough physical examination, pelvic exam, and lab tests.