Seeing blood in the urine undoubtedly causes fear and anxiety in people. Presence of blood in the urine or bloody urine is called (hematuria). In this article, we will give a general review of this complication.
Types of hematuria
Hematuria can be visible, meaning that with the naked eye you can clearly see that your urine is bloody. A small amount of blood can change the color of your urine and make it pink or red.
Sometimes you cannot see the blood in your urine with the naked eye, and it is only the observation of urine under a microscope that proves the presence of red blood cells in the urine. This is called microscopic hematuria. Blood in urine or hematuria is not usually accompanied by pain or discomfort
Visible hematuria can occur in the form of cola-colored urine (soft drink), the urine is dark smoky in these cases, sometimes the patient notices a clot in his urine
Different causes of hematuria
Here we look at the possible causes of hematuria. These causes are:
- Pyelonephritis or kidney infections
Occurs when infectious bacteria enter the kidneys through the bloodstream. In addition to the symptoms of bladder and urinary tract infections mentioned above, fever and back pain are common in kidney infections.
- Urinary stones:
Minerals in the urine may precipitate and form crystals in the kidneys or bladder if the urine concentration increases. As the crystals join together, urinary stones form that, if small and pass easily through the urinary tract; Blood in the urine will be the only common symptom. Larger stones that block the urinary tract will cause pain in addition to hematuria.
- Kidney disease:
Inflammation caused by urinary treatment units is called glomerulonephritis.
In glomerulonephritis, the presence of blood in the urine is very common.
The types of glomerulonephritis are:
- Glomerulonephritis after purulent sore throat
- (A disease in which the kidney loses the ability to filter urine due to the presence of an antibody)
- Glomerulonephritis IgA
- Heavy exercise:
For unknown reasons, professional runners and other people who engage in sports activities experience urinary bleeding after strenuous exercise and mobility.
Clear urinary bleeding can be a sign of a malignancy. Kidney and bladder cancers and advanced prostate cancer in their later stages can be accompanied by obvious hematuria.
There are some medications that have blood in the urine or hematuria as side effects such as:
- Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
- Sulfonamides (including: sulfastamide and sulfamethoxazole)
Bleeding in the urine also occurs in some people taking aspirin, heparin, and other anticoagulants.
In addition, the following medications may be associated with bloody urine
Benign enlargement of the prostate and trauma to the kidneys in accidents can also cause this complication.
Rare causes of hematuria
Rare cases that may be accompanied by blood in the urine include:
- Hereditary diseases (An inherited kidney disease that affects the small arteries of the kidneys) such as Alport syndrome.
Schistosoma parasite, which often infects the bladder.
- Infection and inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis).
- Any manipulation of the urethra, such as a urethral catheter or cystoscopy (a tube-shaped device called a cystoscope that enters the bladder through the urethra so that the doctor can see inside the bladder and its walls
- Red blood cell ruptures (hemolysis)
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
(A rare and dangerous blood disease that affects red blood cells)
- ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO)
- Nutcker illness
(A disease caused by compression of the renal artery between the abdominal aorta and the upper anterior artery)
- Loin pain hematuria
(This disease is a combination of unilateral or bilateral pain with blood in the urine)
- Allergies (especially in children)
- Sickle cell anemia
(Among the disorders that occur in the structure of red blood cells and are sometimes associated with hematuria)
The final word
We emphasize that in smokers and in old age, the presence of blood in the urine can indicate the presence of bladder cancers, etc., it is necessary to see a urologist if you see blood in the urine.